Compare – Noting the SIMILARITIES in two or more objects
Contrast - Noting the DIFFERENCES in two or more objects
Control – The standard used to compare with the outcome of a test
Data – Recorded observations and measurements
Density – Measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume of objects
Dependent Variable – What is measured in an experiment: The response to the independent variable
Independent Variable – The factor that is changed in an experiment
Graph – Diagram that shows the relationship of one variable to another
Hypothesis – A prediction that can be tested
Inference – An attempt to explain or interpret observations
Law – Scientific theory that has been tested many times and is generally accepted as true
Mass – Measure of the amount of a matter in an object
Qualitative – Describing something using only words
Quantitative – describing how much of something there is using Numbers… quantity
Scientific method – Systematic approach to problem solving
Sequence – An arrangement of things or events in a particular order
Theory – An explanation of things base on many observations
Variable – The factor tested in an experiment
Volume – The amount of space an object takes up. Not how loud something is…
Cell Theory – States that all organisms are made up of one or more cells, Cells are the basic unit of life, and cells come from cells that already exist.
Biogenesis – The theory that living things come only from other living things (Correct Theory)
Spontaneous Generation - The theory that living things come from non-living things (Incorrect Theory)
Compound Light Microscope – The fancy words for the microscopes you use in class
Eukaryotic Cells – Cells that have a Nuclear Membrane
Prokaryotic Cells – Cells that do NOT have a nuclear membrane
Metric System – What the entire world uses except U.S. – Meter, Liter, Grams
Meter – Basic unit of length
Liter – Basic unit of volume in the metric system
Grams – Basic unit of weight
Mitosis – The process in which the cell divides into two exact copies
Prophase – “Prepare” – The genetic material bundles up and forms chromosomes and the nuclear membrane break down. The centrioles move to the poles of the cell.
Metaphase - “Middle” – The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. The centrioles attach to the chromosomes
Anaphase – “Apart” - The chromosomes are ripped apart and 1 set of each chromosomes move to each side
Telophase – “Two” – The cell begins to split into two and the nuclear membranes start to reform
Cytokinesis “Cut” – The cell finally splits apart. This results in two exact copies of the original cell
“Mitosis makes my toeses Meiosis made me”
Interphase – The cell remains in interphase for most of the time it is alive. Only when it gets the signal does it start Mitosis
Meiosis – Is slightly different than Mitosis and makes the sex cells (sperm, eggs)
CELL ORGANELLES (*only in plants)
Cell Membrane – Outer Boundary of the cell that allows only certain materials to pass into and out of the cell
Cytoplasm – Gel-Like material inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum – Folded membrane that moves materials around in the cell (Transportation)
Mitochondria or Mitochondrion – Breaks down food and releases energy (Cell Powerhouse)
Nucleus – Directs all cell activities (the brain of the cell)
Vacuoles – Storage tanks for the cell (much bigger in plants, but still present in animals)
Lysosome – Contain chemicals that digest wastes and worn-out cell parts as well as break down food
Ribosomes – Where all the protein is made
*Cell Wall – Rigid Structure made of cellulose that supports and protects the plant cell; Found outside cell membrane
*Chloroplast – Organelles in plant cells that change light energy into chemical energy in the form of sugar (glucose)
*Chlorophyll – Green pigment in plant cells that traps light energy, which is then used to produce food for the plant cell
Movement of materials across a membrane
Active Transportation – Energy requiring process that can “carry” a substance into a cell
Passive Transportation – Movement of a material across a cell without the use of energy (Water does this)
Diffusion – Movement of molecules from an area where there is a HIGH concentration to LOW concentration (think about water behind a dam and what happens if the dam is taken away).
Osmosis – Diffusion of WATER into and out of the cell (moves through the cell membrane). Water is moving constantly
Equilibrium – The state where molecules of a substance are spread out EVENLY throughout a space. Equal
Selective Permeability – The property of a cell membrane that allows some materials to pass through while keeping other materials out. Like the Security guy at the club that only lets the pretty ladies in.
Digestion – Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into small molecules that cells can absorb and use
Irritability – The property of living organisms that permits them to react to stimuli
Metabolism – Total of all chemical activities of an organism that enable it to stay alive, grow and replicate.
Cell – The smallest unit of an organism that can perform life functions
Tissue – Group of similar cells that work together to do a job. They form Organs
Organ – Structure, such as the heart, made of up different types of tissues that work together to form systems
System – Organs work together to form a system such as the digestive system – requires several organs like the stomach, small intestines, brain, etc. Systems form a fully developed Organism.
Endocytosis – Process by which the cells transport stuff INTO the cell
Exocytosis – Process by which the cells transport stuff OUT of the cell
In your notebooks or on Educreations, you will need to have two diagrams. One showing the steps of Mitosis and the other showing the steps of Meiosis.
Be mindful about what is occurring in each stage and where the chromosomes are.
Use any of the resources we used in class or your own if you've found them!
Students- find resources from class to the left.